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Understanding Herniated Discs: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Herniated discs are a common and often painful condition that can significantly impact your quality of life. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of herniated discs is crucial for early intervention and effective treatment.

At Marchese Integrative Practice, we are dedicated to providing comprehensive care for individuals suffering from herniated discs.

What is a Herniated Disc?

A herniated disc, also known as a slipped or ruptured disc, occurs when the soft, gel-like center of a spinal disc (nucleus pulposus) pushes through a crack in the tougher exterior (annulus fibrosus).

This displacement can irritate nearby nerves, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the affected area.

While herniated discs can occur in any part of the spine, they are most common in the lower back (lumbar spine) and neck (cervical spine).

Causes of Herniated Discs

Several factors can contribute to the development of herniated discs, including:

  • Degenerative Disc Disease – As we age, our spinal discs naturally lose water content, becoming less flexible and more prone to tearing or rupturing. This degenerative process can lead to herniated discs, especially in individuals over 40.
  • Injury or Trauma – A sudden, forceful injury such as a fall, car accident, or heavy lifting can cause a disc to herniate. Athletes and individuals involved in physically demanding jobs are particularly susceptible to this type of injury.
  • Repetitive Stress – Repeated motions that place stress on the spine, such as bending, twisting, or lifting heavy objects, can gradually weaken the discs and increase the risk of herniation.
  • Genetics – Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to herniated discs, making them more susceptible to the condition even without significant trauma or stress.
  • Lifestyle Factors – Factors such as smoking, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle can contribute to the weakening of spinal discs and increase the likelihood of herniation.

Symptoms of Herniated Discs

The symptoms of a herniated disc can vary depending on the location and severity of the herniation.

Common symptoms include:


  • Lower Back (Lumbar Spine): Pain typically radiates from the lower back to the buttocks, thighs, and legs (sciatica). This pain can be sharp, burning, or aching and may worsen with movement.
  • Neck (Cervical Spine): Pain may radiate from the neck to the shoulders, arms, and hands. This pain can also be sharp or burning and may worsen with certain neck movements.

Numbness or Tingling

Herniated discs can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the areas served by the affected nerves. For example, a herniated disc in the lower back may cause numbness in the legs or feet.


The affected nerves can also lead to muscle weakness in the affected areas, making it difficult to perform certain tasks or movements. For instance, a herniated disc in the cervical spine may result in weakness in the arms or hands.

Loss of Reflexes

Reflexes in the affected limbs may be diminished or absent due to nerve compression.

Pain Aggravated by Certain Activities

Activities such as bending, lifting, or twisting can exacerbate the pain caused by a herniated disc. Prolonged sitting or standing may also worsen the symptoms.

Diagnosis of Herniated Discs

Accurate diagnosis is essential for developing an effective treatment plan. At Marchese Integrative Practice, we use a combination of methods to diagnose herniated discs:

  • Medical History – We begin by taking a detailed medical history to understand your symptoms, lifestyle, and any previous injuries or conditions that may contribute to your pain.
  • Physical Examination – A thorough physical examination helps us assess your range of motion, muscle strength, reflexes, and areas of tenderness. This examination can provide valuable clues about the location and extent of the herniation.

Imaging Tests

  • X-rays: While X-rays cannot directly visualize herniated discs, they can help rule out other causes of back pain, such as fractures or tumors.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): MRI is the gold standard for diagnosing herniated discs. It provides detailed images of the spinal discs and nerves, allowing us to pinpoint the location and severity of the herniation.
  • CT Scan (Computed Tomography): CT scans offer detailed cross-sectional images of the spine and can be useful in identifying herniated discs and related issues.
  • Myelogram: In some cases, a myelogram may be performed. This involves injecting a contrast dye into the spinal canal to enhance the visibility of the spinal cord and nerves on X-rays or CT scans.

Nerve Tests

Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies can help assess the electrical activity of your nerves and muscles, providing additional information about the extent of nerve damage caused by a herniated disc.

Understanding the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of herniated discs is the first step towards effective treatment and pain relief.

At Marchese Integrative Practice, we are committed to providing personalized care and comprehensive treatment options for individuals suffering from herniated discs.

If you are experiencing symptoms of a herniated disc in Maspeth or any nearby city in New York, call us today ta 718-899-5433 to schedule a consultation with our experienced team.

Early intervention can make a significant difference in your recovery and overall well-being.